Centrosome: Definition, Overview, Function, And Controversy

Centrosome Definition

A centrosome is an organelle found in animal cells that plays a crucial role in cell division. It consists of two barrel-shaped clusters of microtubules called centrioles and a complex of proteins that help additional microtubules to form.

Before cell division, the centrosome duplicates and then moves to opposite ends of the cell. Proteins called microtubules assemble into a spindle between the two centrosomes and help separate the replicated chromosomes into the new daughter cells.

Centrosome Overview

A centrosome is a cellular structure involved in the process of cell division. It is located in the cytoplasm, usually close to the nucleus, and consists of two centrioles oriented at right angles to each other embedded in a mass of amorphous material containing more than 100 different proteins.

The centrosome duplicates during S phase of the cell cycle, and what had been the original “daughter” centriole goes on to differentiate.

Centrosomes are organelles that serve as the main microtubule-organizing centers for animal cells. They are made up of two barrel-shaped clusters of microtubules called “centrioles” and a complex of proteins that help additional microtubules to form.

The role of the centrosome is crucial in cell division. Before cell division, the centrosome duplicates, and then as division begins, the two centrosomes move to opposite ends of the cell.

Proteins called microtubules assemble into a spindle between the two centrosomes and help separate replicated chromosomes into daughter cells.

During mitosis, which is part of cell division, microtubules create a spindle that coordinates cells moving away from each other. The centrosomes organize these microtubules so it’s called the microtubule organizing center (MTOC).

The centrosome cycle consists of four phases that are synchronized with the cell cycle: duplication during G1 phase and S Phase; maturation in G2 phase; separation in mitotic phase; and disorientation in late mitotic phase-G1 phase.

Initiation of the centrosome cycle occurs early in the cell cycle to have two centrosomes by mitosis. Since it organizes microtubules, it has to do with formation of mitotic spindle polarity and therefore cell shape as well as all other processes having to do with mitotic spindle.

Function of Centrosomes

Centrosomes are organelles found in the cells of most plants and animals. They consist of two centrioles, which are oriented at right angles to each other, embedded in a mass of amorphous material containing more than 100 different proteins.

The centrosome is located in the cytoplasm usually close to the nucleus. Centrosomes play a vital role in mitosis, which is the division of a cell into two daughter cells.

During cell division, the centrosomes duplicate and then move to opposite ends of the cell. Proteins called microtubules assemble into a spindle between the two centrosomes and help separate the replicated chromosomes into the daughter cells.

Centrosomes are also involved in overseeing important changes to cell membrane shape, such as those seen in phagocytosis.

In animal cells, each daughter cell gets one centrosome from the parent cell during cell division. The centrosome is then copied during the cell cycle so that each daughter cell can receive one when it divides.

The centriole is the inner core of the centrosome and its conformation undergoes a series of morphological and functional changes during the four phases of the centrosome cycle: duplication during G1 phase and S phase, maturation in G2 phase, separation in mitotic phase, and disorientation in late mitotic phase-G1 phase.

Controversy Over Necessity

There is a controversy over the necessity of centrosomes in cells. While most eukaryotic cells have a microtubule cytoskeleton, many do not have centrosomes, which are structures that contain the centrioles.

Centrosomes are involved in the process of cell division, where they duplicate and move to opposite ends of the cell before proteins called microtubules assemble into a spindle between them to separate replicated chromosomes into daughter cells.

While centrosomes are not essential in somatic cells in fruit flies and many animal cells don’t have them, there is an extensive debate on whether centrosome defects commonly observed in cancer cells could be at the origin of genome instability observed in cancer cells.

Animal models of human mutations associated with diseases should play an important role in understanding their genesis.